We will only benefit from technological solutions and extended infrastructure when people have the skills and motivation required to use these resources.
Acquisition of basic information and communication technology skills is a priority both for people themselves and the public and private sector. Campaigns and training courses aimed at improving digital literacy have been launched at the initiative of enterprises and with some participation from the state, such as the Internet involvement project, “Ole kaasas!” (Come Along).
The awareness of people of the opportunities and threats offered by the Internet have been consistently increased within the information society awareness programme that emphasises safe Internet behaviour skills.
The presence of a competent, innovative and competitive ICT sector is important for both the development of public sector ICT solutions and the economy in general.
According to the goal established for 2020, 50% more people than today will work in the Estonian ICT sector. The aims set for the next seven years for the ICT sector are described in the Information Society Development Plan Until 2020.
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IT-related afterschool activities
Digital literacy and personal welfare
The following activities will be implemented to teach people to use the Internet for improving the quality of their lives:
- Promotion of basic IT skills in general education schools, above all, in basic schools.
- Supporting the acquisition of basic IT skills among adult non-users of the Internet.
- Increasing the awareness of the population of the opportunities and threats offered by information society.
- Supporting the updating and creation of information concerning the information society at general education school level and in curricula.
- Identification of IT competences and development of related frameworks for all levels of education and professional standards.
- Bringing the level of total research and development expenditures up to 2 per cent of the GDP.
Development of advanced IT skills
The following measures will be implemented to contribute to the promotion of the IT skills required to create jobs with higher added value:
- IT skills of population with poor or out-dated qualification
The awareness among students and employees of ICT sector career opportunities will be supported by developing information dissemination programmes and career advising events.
Labour market of IT sector
Among other tools, admission to the appropriate specialities in universities has been extended to decrease the labour shortage in the ICT sector.
Until now, more attention has been given in Estonia to promoting the IT skills of people with poor or out-dated qualifications. Too little consideration has been given to developing the IT skills required to create jobs with higher added value. Instead, we should promote and facilitate IT competence that will be in more demand in the near future – interdisciplinary aspects, data mining, analytical abilities and cyber security. Several efforts have been implemented in Estonia for that purpose:
- In 2012, the IT Academy was established in Estonia, which is aimed at improving the quality of ICT education and increasing its international competitiveness.
- The amendments to the Aliens Act, endorsed in 2013, provide the prerequisites for facilitating the introduction of top level specialists to Estonia.
Master's study of data science specialists
- The problem: Estonian companies need data science specialists, but Estonian universities have not yet created a separate curriculum for training data scientists
- Goal: to organize Master's studies for data science specialists in order to bring the currently missing labor force to the Estonian labor market in the form of trained and qualified data science specialists, thereby contributing to the creation of higher value-added jobs and the growth of international competitiveness of data science specialists
- Study period September 2020 - June 2023
- Target group: people with at least a bachelor’s degree, who have completed at least 60 ECTS in mathematics and/or statistics and/or informatics in the previous level of higher education
- Number of participants 50
- The cost of the project is 997,100 euros
Over the last ten years, the volume of data collected by both companies and the public sector has grown significantly. The biggest challenge is the question of what to do with the collected data and how to make it useful for the company/institution. As companies and institutions realize that they do not have the skills to collect, interpret, and process data, they have started looking for professionals to help them. Therefore, there is a great demand for the knowledge and skills of data scientists not only in Estonia, but also in other parts of the world.
So far, Estonian universities have not created a separate curriculum for training data scientists. There are subjects in the bachelor’s and master’s degree programs of different universities that are related to data science or where it is possible to specialize in subjects related to data science - data mining, data visualization, machine learning, etc. In addition, short training courses in data science are offered by both training companies and universities, both as e-courses and formal studies, and the number of applicants is very large. However, there is no comprehensive curriculum in Estonian universities to train data science specialists, whom the Estonian labor market is currently in great need of.
In order to improve the above, the MEAC has decided to organize a procurement for the organization of master’s studies for data science specialists.
In addition to the above, the additional goal of the project is to create a basis for the training of top data science specialists on the basis of the curriculum developed through the procurement.
On 29.05.2019, an agreement was signed with the University of Tartu for the training of the 50 Masters of Science in Data Science; the agreement lasts until 22.06.2023. Preparatory activities for the curriculum took place in 2019, and studies will start in the autumn of 2020.
- Ordering curricula and teaching for two information society subjects (CITIS)
- The aim of the project was to increase the international competitiveness of Estonian higher education institutions, especially students acquiring education in social sciences and specialists operating in the labor market through the acquisition of higher information and communication technology (hereinafter ICT) skills and knowledge.
- Implemented June 2015 - August 2019
- Target group social science students
- Number of participants 240, in addition to 500 e-course participants
- The cost of the project without VAT is 492,200 euros
The Estonian Information Society Development Plan 2020 sets the goal of contributing to the creation of higher value-added jobs and the growth of international competitiveness. This means developing higher ICT skills, especially in non-ICT disciplines and sectors.
In the summer of 2015, the MEAC concluded an agreement with the University of Tartu for the development of the curriculum and teaching of the subject taught at the master’s level related to the study and analysis of the effects of the information society. The volume of the subject was 6 ECTS, and all students of Estonian universities studying social sciences could take it as an elective. A total of 240 people were trained over four years.
Within the framework of the same agreement, an e-course taught via the Internet was created for both students and specialists in the labor market, the content of which is a quantitative analysis of information society datasets. The subject has been taught since the autumn of 2016, and 500 people were able to take part in the training.
- The digital literacy training for employees in the industrial sector ("DigiABC")
- The digital literacy training for employees in the industrial sector ("DigiABC"), which supports the goal of the “Estonian Information Society Development Plan 2014-2020,” sets the goal is to reduce the share of non-users of computers and the Internet to five percent by 2020.
- Problem: only 8.8% of enterprises in the manufacturing industry trained their employees in the field of ICT (Statistical Office)
- Objective: to create additional initiatives for the acquisition of digital literacy, which would support people of working age to cope as members of the information society, but more importantly - increase their personal competitiveness and the competitiveness of sectors important for the Estonian economy
- Period May 2017 - October 2020
- Target group: employees and managers of forestry and wood industry and metal and machinery industry
- Number of participants 3000 employees + 1000 managers
- The cost of the project is 475,728 euros
Lack of digital literacy or one-sided skills affects people's ability to cope with the information society and widens the digital divide. Lack of digital literacy is also an obstacle to professional development. With regard to the use of computers and the Internet at work, it can be seen that the lower the level of education, the lower the use. The problem is the motivation of people aged 50 and older to use computers and the Internet. However, information processing skills are related to the prospects of the labor market - the better the skills, the better the prospects and also the salary.
In the manufacturing industry, as Estonia's largest economic sector, digital literacy training offered could potentially have the greatest impact. More specifically, two areas can be identified – the forestry and the wood industries, and the metal and machinery industries. Both are the so-called growth areas of the economy, with a total of more than 60,000 employees. In order to leapfrog development and add value, both of the above areas need an innovative and creative approach and the ability to use sector-specific information technology and telecommunications opportunities. However, one of the most important obstacles may be the modest skills of professionals and managers currently working in the sectors and their knowledge of innovative solutions to create added value.Based on the above, the MEAC entered into an agreement with IT Koolituskeskus OÜ in May 2017 (since December 2017 Äripäev AS), which in cooperation with the Estonian Employers' Confederation organizes basic digital literacy training for 3,000 industrial sector employees and conducts awareness-raising activities for 1,000 industrial sector managers. The term of the agreement is until 31.10.2020.
- Digital literacy training "e-Community"
- The challenge and the goal: to reduce the digital divide in society, which is particularly acute in the older generation
- Period July 2017 - October 2021
- Target group librarians, community members, 50+ people
- Number of participants 1000 librarians/community members, 5000 people aged 50+
- The cost of the project is 571 980,30 euros
Public services are increasingly moving to electronic channels, there is self-service, and an information system offering a similar e-service is a tool for an official working in a service bureau or information telephone. At the same time, the vigorously developed e-state has failed to bridge the digital divide, which is particularly pronounced for the older generation. Acquisition of digital literacy, i.e., basic information technology skills, has been a constant priority for both the Estonian people themselves and the state.
In 2017, the MEAC conducted the procurement “Digital Literacy Training “e-Community.”
The procurement ordered:
- Training of 1000 librarians and/ or community members in coaching to help people with e-services
- basic digital literacy training for 5,000 people, mainly aged 50+
The training takes place all over Estonia, and 30% of the training is in Russian.
The training is conducted by AS BCS Koolitus, which submitted a joint offer with the Estonian National Library. The agreement was entered into on 21.09.2017, and the activities will be carried out until 31.10.2021.
- ICT work and raising career awareness information activities
- The problem: According to the OSKA Information and Communication Technology report, there is a shortage of more than 14,000 people in the Estonian ICT sector
- Objective: to provide Estonian people, especially young people, with fresh, relevant and attractive information about various ICT professions both in the ICT sector and in other fields, which would help them to make a choice in favor of studying ICT specialties
- Period January 2018 - December 2019
- The target group in the media campaign: young people aged 15-29, in the information events and workshops: young people aged 15-19
- The cost of the project is 199,906.73 euros
The "Estonian Information Society Development Plan 2020" set the goal of increasing the share of ICT specialists in total employment by 2020 by 1.5 times compared to today. However, this means that Estonian people, and especially young people, must have access to fresh, relevant, and attractive information about various ICT professions, both in the ICT sector and in other areas, which would help them to make a choice in favor of studying ICT specialties. The understanding of ICT work is largely derived from practical experience that can be given to young people through both formal and non-formal education.
In view of the above, a contract was concluded with Big Idea Group OÜ on 19.01.2018, the content of which was the organization and conduct of ICT work, a career awareness information campaign, and ICT work and raising career awareness information events starting from the conclusion of the procurement contract until 30.12.2019.
The comprehensive package of information activities consisted of two parts:
- Media campaign
Carrying out an information campaign for ICT work and raising career awareness for young people aged 15-29. The aim of the information campaign is to increase the awareness of young people aged 15-29 in particular about the need for ICT skills in the labor market and in the context of occupations in various fields. The aim of the information campaign is to show these young people the connections of the ICT field with other fields and to dispel common stereotypes about the ICT field and IT specialists, creating, among other things, positive female role models for women working in ICT.
The message of the campaign conducted in 2018 was "ICT is everywhere," which paid attention to the diversity of professions in the field of ICT.
In 2019, the campaign focused on professional options, and the message of the campaign was "dICTate your future."
- Information events (50 pcs) and workshops for girls (10 pcs)
Organizing and conducting information events for young people aged 15-19. The aim of the information events was to raise the awareness of young people aged 15-19 about the field of ICT, professions and specialties and the various possibilities of applying ICT, and thus to help raise the popularity of ICT education and increase the proportion of women in the ICT workforce. The aim of the information events is to arouse interest in the field of ICT among young people aged 15-19, to show connections with other fields and to dispel common stereotypes about the field of ICT and IT specialists.
- Acquisition and dissemination of ICT career information
- The problem: the low awareness of young people and adults in the field of information and communication technologies and their various applications
- Goal: to create and update career information corresponding to modern and real work in the field of ICT
- Project implementation period September 2015 - December 2016
- Target group: young people and career counselors
- The cost of the project is 42,452.40 euros
The project entailed compilation and updating of up-to-date career information in the field of information and communication technology.
As a result of the project, fresh, updated, and up-to-date career information was created, which gives young people, as well as adults, a better overview of what ICT jobs are and where it is possible to get an education to get a job in one or another ICT job.
The videos were made about the following professions: customer support specialist, IT product manager, software developer, web designer, system administrator, business analyst, electronic engineer. Job profiles, tests (in both Estonian and Russian) and personal stories were completed from the following jobs: IT client manager, IT manager, IT project manager, IT quality manager, information security manager, IT software developer, multimedia specialist, web designer, system architect, user convenience specialist, database administrator, system administrator, network specialist, business analyst, system analyst, data analyst, service engineer, customer support specialist, technical support specialist, electronics technician, electronics engineer, and IT product manager.
More information on the website http://startit.ee/karjaar/
-Training on IT legislation
- Period: September 2015 - August 2020
- Target group: 100 Master's students in IT law and four doctoral students defending a degree in the field of IT law.
- The cost of the project is 960,000 euros
- The problem: The export of Estonian e-government IT solutions and services has created a need for the training of lawyers specializing in IT law.
- Goal: To train specialists who must acquire a good basic education in legislation in definitions and terms of information and communication technology in order to open new business directions for Estonian companies.
In order to maintain the image of a successful and innovative technology country and to support the export of e-government solutions, the Estonian state needs to introduce changes in the education system so that modules, subjects, and in-service training in professional ICT education will emerge. Through them, it is possible to alleviate the shortage of IT specialists in various sectors, increase the added value of employees in the sector, and stay in international competition.
In the context of supporting areas important for the national economy, the MEAC provided for the need to train specialists with IT legal competencies. The training of IT lawyers in Estonia provides an opportunity for growth for both IT companies and the legal sector, opens new business directions abroad, and increases the quality of orders for the country's IT development projects when entering the labor market.
In September 2015, the MEAC signed an agreement with the University of Tartu to conduct IT legal training over five years. Within the framework of the training, specialty subjects of IT law in the volume of 36 ECTS and 54 ECTS are offered to master’s students and specialists in the labor market (within the framework of continuing education). The agreement also aims to train four doctoral students in law who are to write a doctoral dissertation in the field of IT law.
Within the framework of this project, a laboratory of innovative legal solutions or IT Law Lab was established, which is an example of how representatives of ministries and employers and the University of Tartu work together to create innovative programs and learning tasks that guide students to solve real-life cases, combining knowledge and skills from different walks of life.
- In-service training for professionals providing career services
- The problem: The results of the study “Graduates and their career choices” commissioned by the Archimedes Foundation and conducted by the research company Praxis in 2012 show that young people do not have an overview of the field of natural and exact sciences when making professional choices, both in terms of the profession and the labor market perspective.
- Goal: to increase the awareness of young people in particular in the field of information and communication technologies and employment opportunities
- Period: 2017 – 2018
- Target group of the training: career specialists, teachers and specialists engaged in career guidance of young people
- Number of trained career specialists: 435
- The cost of the project: 65 859,66 euros
The aim of the project was through in-service training to provide career specialists with the necessary knowledge to introduce ICT professions and IT work, especially to young people.
The target group of the training was career specialists and teachers of general education schools, as well as specialists who deal with the career guidance of both young people and adults. Career specialists are involved in work in Rajaleidja centers, the Unemployment Insurance Fund, and vocational and higher education institutions.
The training was conducted from the beginning of 2017 until the end of 2018, a total of 435 specialists were trained across Estonia. The training lasted eight academic hours. In addition to the theoretical part, large ICT companies, such as Playtech, Cybernetica, Skype, etc., were also visited.
- Conducting training to increase the availability of ICT hobby education
- The problem: There are not enough instructors to fulfill the needs of all IT hobby groups.
- Goal: Train more than 200 instructors for IT hobby groups who do not have previous exposure to IT.
- Period 2015 - 2018 (pilot + training)
- Target group: potential instructors of hobby groups (parents, students, community members)
- Number of participants 36 pilot participants + 201 participants in the main project
- Project cost 4770 euros pilot project, 28 670 euros training project
In 2015, basic training for information technology hobby group instructors was procured, in the course of which 36 interest group instructors were trained. This was a pilot training, the cost of which was 4770 euros.
The contractual partner was Vaata Maailma SA. As the project was extremely successful, and there was a lot of interest in mentoring the hobby groups, it was decided that the training should be organized on a larger scale.
In 2016, the organization of training for ICT hobby group instructors was procured, including the development of curricula for study materials and lessons, and the organization of mentoring. The contract partner was also the Look@World Foundation, the duration of the contract was until 02.07.2018, and the volume of the contract was 28,670.00 euros, including VAT.
The training was targeted at parents and/or potential initiators of hobby groups (e.g., IT students, youth workers, active community members (excluding teachers of general education schools)).
The main areas of the training were IT (programming), robotics, and methodology of conducting hobby groups. A total of ten training sessions were conducted within the project (two of them in 2016 and eight in 2017), with a total of 201 participants (the aim of the project was 200 participants)
- Survey of the cyber security workforce needs for education
- Period 2018 - 2019
- Target group: cyber security professionals
- The cost of the project is 70,800 euros
On 23 March 2018, an agreement was signed with the Praxis Center for Policy Studies (hereinafter Praxis) to conduct a cyber security workforce need and education survey, the aim of which is to analytically determine how many ICT specialists specializing in cyber security the Estonian labor market needs today and with what kind of training (2018 perspective) and provide an assessment of the long-term strategic planning of the field and education policy (5-year view).
The analytical assessments prepared on the basis of the study are planned to be used to guide the development of curricula (both cyber security/security curricula and IT curricula and, if necessary, the cyber knowledge component of other disciplines), based on the volume of students admitted and the needs of the labor market.
When forecasting the future, the growing impact of cyber threats on the functioning of society and the growth potential of cyber security as an industry must be taken into account. Today, labor shortages are one of the main factors hindering sectoral entrepreneurship.
The results of the survey became clear at the beginning of 2019, according to which the Estonian cyber security sector needs 270-870 cyber security specialists by 2023. Compared to the 2017 level, this means an increase in the workforce in the range of 32-86 percent.
A short version of the study is available here:
The full version is available here: https://www.mkm.ee/sites/default/files/kuberturbe_uuring_aruanne_23_04_2...
- MOOC for young people "From the consumer of technology to the creator of IT"
- The problem: The jobs of the future will require people to have more knowledge of IT as well as practical skills, even if they work in a field other than IT. Another problem is the lack of labor in the IT sector both in Estonia and elsewhere in the world.
- Goal: In order to be ready for future jobs, we are piloting an e-course for young people to teach programming, which creates a prerequisite for arousing interest in IT and at the same time provides the necessary skills to cope in today's and tomorrow's labor market.
- Period spring 2020 - spring 2022
- Target group 16-26-year olds
- Number of participants 500
- The cost of the project is 298,456 euros
Estonia has long been known in the world for its digital solutions, both in the performance of state tasks and in private business. In order to preserve the development potential of Estonian society and continue to be one of the most digitalized countries in the world, it is important to create favorable conditions for the emergence of a digitally competent offspring. Looking at university admission statistics (sais.ee), social sciences are still the most popular specialties, but according to the OSKA report, there is a shortage of more than 14,000 people in the Estonian ICT sector.
An agreement was signed with the University of Tartu to create and conduct the course "From the consumer of technology to the creator of technology."
- In the first stage, up to 100 mentors are trained
- 500 young people from all over Estonia are trained
- Opportunity to start studying computer science at the University of Tartu outside the competition, if the grade is at least 90% of the maximum.
- Python is used as the programming language
- During the course, basic programming skills are taught, and by the end of the course, a software solution will be completed as group work.
- The course lasts a total of 10 weeks, and its volume is 3 ECTS. Existing teaching materials will be reused during the project.
After completing the e-course, the learner will have acquired at least the following programming knowledge and skills:
- knows the basics of the algorithmic way of thinking and is able to apply this way of thinking;
- is able to describe and use program elements (variable, loop, function, etc.) in the programming language Python;
- is able to create simpler applications that simplify everyday life;
- is able to analyze problems for which the material used in the training is sufficient and chooses a suitable algorithm to solve the problem;
- is able to test the work of the created program, finds and corrects shortcomings;
- is able to analyze a given program code without running it;
- is able to find errors in the source code and debug the code.
More information about the course can be found here:
- Digital literacy training for family doctors
- Problem: the family physicians’ computer and Internet skills do not meet today's requirements, and therefore patient data is at risk
- Goal: to teach family physicians/nurses the basic digital literacy skills needed in family medicine, including the use of information systems used in family medicine, information security topics, and e-health legislation.
- Period: spring 2020 - spring 2022
- Target group: family physicians and nurses
- Number of participants: 500 primary care workers, 60% of whom are practicing family physicians, the rest are resident family physicians and family nurses;
- The cost of the project is 348,960 euros
The Estonian health care system requires good digital literacy from health care professionals, as medical information about patients is stored in the information system, prescriptions and e-referrals are issued electronically. Consultations between family physicians and medical specialists also often take place electronically. Given the technological developments that have taken place since the training of health professionals today, efforts must be made to develop their basic ICT skills.
The Estonian e-health vision 2025 and the e-health strategic development plan 2020 and the labor demand monitoring and forecasting system OSKA3 describe the need to develop the digital data use and information processing capabilities of health care providers (HCP). The real functioning of the technical, organizational, and legal environment must be ensured when implementing e-health projects, such as the proper preparation of digital documents and their transmission to the Health Information System (HIS). To this end, it is important to organize sustainable basic and in-service training for health professionals.
In order to improve the aforementioned situation, the MEAC has decided to order thorough training to increase the digital literacy of family physicians and nurses. The agreement was signed with Tallinn University of Technology at the beginning of 2020, within the framework of which 500 family physicians and nurses will be trained.
The training consists of three modules:
- Module I - basic digital literacy skills when working as a family physician. The aim is to provide participants with basic skills and knowledge of using e-services on a desktop basis (i.e., based on the information system that the physician participating in the training uses on a daily basis).
- Module II - logics and principles of e-health operation. The aim is to give participants an overview of the functioning of e-health and the surrounding legal space, including responsibilities and opportunities. The family physician/nurse who has completed the training knows and understands the legal framework for digital documentation; has an overview of the principles of operation of the e-health information system and understands that software developments in the local information system of a health care professional are also necessary for the operation of integrated e-services solutions.
- Module III - information security. The aim is to provide an overview of information security, including cyber-hygiene (incl. the most important security measures), data processing, and the principles of compiling an IT risk analysis.
- Smart customer training for family physicians
- Problem: family physicians are not satisfied with the functionality and user-friendliness of the systems used in everyday work. On the other hand, the problem is that they do not know how to make their needs clear to the developer.
- Goal: to teach the family physician the software development logic so that they can be better involved in the development of the following systems (the Family Physician 3 information system is currently being developed)
- Period autumn 2018
- Target group: family physicians
- Number of participants: 15
- The cost of the project is 17,880 euros
Satisfaction with the applications used in the healthcare system is rather low among physicians and nurses, and one of the reasons is that software developers have not created user-friendly systems that meet the expectations of physicians. Four main problems have been outlined: first, users can describe what they don't like about the existing system, but they can't suggest clear solutions because they don't know the logic of creating software. Secondly, they cannot describe exactly what they want. Thirdly, the terms of reference are drawn up with virtually no communication with the average user, and when the system is ready, it turns out that it is not going to be used because it does not meet physicians' expectations. Fourthly, the terms of reference are insufficient, the number of usage stories is too limited and does not really cover all the needs of physicians.
Based on the above, the MEAC saw a clear need to teach family physicians the logic of software development and thereby promote the development of better applications in their field of work.
In the autumn of 2018, MEAC ordered Indrek Saul OÜ (in cooperation with Tallinn University of Technology) a smart customer training for fifteen family physicians.
The training included the following topics:
- Input collection - how to organize, harmonize, systematize and prioritize information received from the user;
- Understanding the user's needs - what are the user's problems and needs, goals;
- Workflow description - how to identify, organize, visualize with the user which work is to be automated with the software.
- Prototyping and testing - how to build a prototype of a future application and test it on the user.
- Description of usage stories
- Business case preparation - practical cost-benefit calculation.
- Retraining course "Choose IT"
- "Choose IT" is a 4-month retraining course with the aim of increasing the number of IT specialists and offer new labor market outlets to the adult population
- The problem: According to the OSKA Information and Communication Technology report, there is a shortage of more than 14,000 people in the Estonian ICT sector
- Objective: To provide rapid relief of labor shortages in the ICT sector
- Period September 2016 - September 2020
- Target group: adults interested in retraining, who have completed at least 50% of the higher education curriculum and who have not previously studied IT and worked in IT
- Number of participants: 500
- The cost of the project is 1 419 522,48 euros
The goal of "Choose IT!" Is to provide participants with basic software developer skills. In the course of the project, a retraining model based on practical training, was created in cooperation with employers in the ICT sector, which meets the needs of the labor market. The model was piloted with one study group and then adapted according to the feedback.
Program participants completed a 6-week full-time contact training (240 hours) and an 8-week (320 hours) internship in companies.
After completing the course, the trainee is able to:
- design the product (application, system part) and its architectural solutions;
- write program code;
- integrate created applications with other system components;
- test applications;
- implement and install solutions;
- document solutions, manage the sequence of changes to the document (and system);
- participate in both independent and team-based software development work;
- participate in the development process in different work ways and roles.
Choose IT statistics:
- 52% of participants are women, 48% men
- 78% of participants aged 26-40
- 59% of participants have a bachelor’s degree or equivalent, 33% have a master’s degree.
Three months after training:
- 68% of participants work
- 6% work and study at a higher education institution
- 8% are engaged in private enterprise
- 14% do not work or study (incl. parental leave)